Installation of Linux distribution is not a difficult task and luckily Ubuntu is no exception here. Interactive interface of the installer with useful dialogues makes it easy to employee Ubuntu as your production server. You are only required to respond to some questions and provide necessary data for your server identification on the net and all is done.
Linux is so much reliable that it can run your server without any restart, crash or hang for a long period if periodic maintenance is properly done. Server OS doesn’t need any desktop which makes this amazing and favorite OS for a server with bare minimum system resources to work.
In this guide, we will install Ubuntu 16.04 LTS 64-Bit Server edition. Due to the absence of GUI (graphical user Interface), 512MB of RAM and 5 GB of space on the hard drive is sufficient to run Ubuntu Server.
All you need to download the distribution from the official website, write it to a USB flash drive or CD, and follow the installation environment points to answer questions.
This article will guide you through the basic installation of Ubuntu Linux Server 16.04. It will take some time as some steps are promptly completed while some take time to finalize the task.
1) To start the installation, insert or attach your installation media to the server and boot the machine. You will be prompted with a screen to start the installation. Select the Install Ubuntu Server option.
2) Now comes language selection dialogue box. Select the English or any other language as per your preference. However, for sake of this guide, we will be using default English language.
3) After selection of language, you will be asked to select your location to customise the system as per your geographical location. In case if your country is not listed, select the “other” and hit enter.
4) The installer will now ask for automatic keyboard detection or manual selection. If you select automatic detection and system successfully detects the layout, you will be skipped to next step. Otherwise, you have to manually select the keyboard.
5) Now you need to select the keyboard layout. Select the country which you selected in above step for localization. In our case we will select the English (US).
6) In next screen, select key the oard layout. We will go for English (US).
7) With the selection of layouts and language settings, the next step is to specify the host name. Spaces and special characters are not allowed. A host name is basically identification of your server on the network. Most of the system administrators define host name with – like host-server . This will be the name of the current system on the network.
You shall try to declare such a host name which is unique and meaningful to avoid confusion with other servers on the network. In this tutorial, we will leave the default value of ubuntu host name as this system is not on the network.
8) The next step is to specify the user name. It is worth noting that this is not a login, but a name. You can enter your real name, or you can write down everything that comes to mind.
9) Next screen will require configuration of user name and password. Don’t select admin or root username. Rather you shall select such user name which is difficult to guess and so is the case with the password. You are highly encouraged to select the complex password with the combination of upper case, lower case, special characters, and digits. You need to re-enter the password for password confirmation. If you select the weak password which is not fulfilling the standard of complex password defined by the system, you will be prompted to continue with the weak password.
10) Do you need encryption the home directory or not? No, we do not need this at all.
11) Configure the system clock by selecting time zone as per your local area.
12) Now comes the vital part of Linux installation to set up the disk and partitioning system. Ubuntu offers four choices as under.
Guided – use entire disk
This is one of the traditional UNIX partitioning layout. It creates a fixed non-LVM (Logical Volume Manager) partition system which can not be easily changed.
Guided – use entire disk and set up LVM
It’s a flexible partitioning system, creates a small boot partition and stores the remaining available disk space into a logical volume in which the other partitions will be created. While LVM allows additional flexibility in how the logical volume will be laid out or changed in the future.
Guided – use entire disk and set up encrypted LVM
All features of the above-stated option plus it encrypts the logical volume with a password.
This option is for advanced users and allows manual configuration of disk partitions. Only experienced server administrators use this option for partitioning as per their requirement.
This guide will demonstrate the use of the second option which is Guided – use entire disk and set up LVM.
13) Select the hard drive and partitioning will start.
14) Confirm the changes.
15) If you chose the 2nd item like me, you will need to set the size of the volume group.
16) Once again confirm the changes.
17) If your network has proxy server to access the internet, enter the information here.
18) Disable automatic updates however its totally upup toou.
19) At this stage, we will select the role of our server. You have the option to select configure your machine as LAMP, DNS server mail server etc. Here we are going to select only OpenSSH and standard system utilities for server management at a later stage.
20) Install the bootloader so that Ubuntu can boot from hard disk.
21) In the next dialog, click “Continue”, unplug all flash drives or any other media that you have used for installation of Ubuntu server. After reboot, you will be welcomed by the black login screen.
Congratulations, your Ubuntu Server 16.04 LTS is installed and ready for use. You can safely deploy it for your sites, applications, servers, etc.