Git – Standard Workflow for Newbies

Git is a version control system (SCR) that allows you to track changes in a project over time. Git records all the changes that you made in the project, stores information about these changes and allows you to use this information.

From this article, you will learn about the standard workflow using Git, as well as the basic commands in Git for daily use.

Standard Workflow with Git

The standard workflow using Git looks like this:

  1. After creating the Git Repository, all the work is done in the Working Directory
  2. When your work reaches an important mark (for example, you fixed a bug or ended the workday), you add your changes to the Index (the so-called ‘prepared files area’ or ‘staging area’)
  3. Once the index contains all the changes you intend to save, you make a commit that moves files from the index to the Git Repository for permanent storage.

The project in Git can be considered as consisting of 3 parts:

Part Description
Working Directory Where you do all the work: create, edit, delete and organize files
Index Where you mark what changes you made in the working directory, you should save
Git Repository Where Git permanently stores these changes in the form of different versions of your project

Create New Git Repository

Open the folder with the existing project or create a new folder and run the following command inside it to create a new Git repository:

This command creates a sub-directory .gitin the project root that contains the metadata required for Git to work.

Check Git Status Repository

Check the current state of the Git repository:

This command is the main tool that helps to determine which files are in what state (which are already in the index and which are not added and therefore are not tracked).

What, in fact, means the status of “Untracked”? Not traceable – means that Git sees the file, but has not yet started to track any changes in it. To Git began to track changes, it is necessary that the file was added to the index.

Add File to Index in Git

Run the following command so that Git begins to track changes to the file (added to the index):

To add all the files to the index, run:

Show Changes in Git

When the state of the files is tracked, we can view the changes between the working directory and the index:

To show the changes, run:

To see how a specific file was modified, follow these steps:

Save Changes to Git

A commit is the final step in a workflow using Git .

Save all changes from the index:

Only commit a specific file:

The standard rules for compiling a description of a commit in Git are:

  • Must be quoted
  • Must be written in the present tense
  • Must be short (not more than 50 characters)

View Commit History

Show the history of commits made in the Git repository:

Basic Commands in Git

Summarizing the above, here are the basic commands in Git for daily use :

Command Description
git init Create a new Git repository
git status Show the status of the contents of the working directory and index
git add Add files from the working directory to the index
git diff Show changes between working directory and index
git commit Permanently save all changes from the index to the repository
git log Show a list of all previous commits

Authored By Imran Yousaf

I am Imran Yousaf, a computer geek, founder of the site Smashinglab.com. I am a die hard fond of open-source software and Linux operating system. In addition to Linux, I am interested in everything related to information technology and modern science.

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